The electric tractor is specially designed to take advantage of the electric drive system which is up to 95% efficient at using the power from the batteries with no emissions. This is in contrast to internal combustion engines that are from 10 – 25% efficient and produce large amounts of pollution and greenhouse gasses.
Electric motors have their maximum torque starting at zero ground speed, which is a big advantage for the tractor. Most of the tasks a tractor performs are at start or at low speeds and require high torque. Take for example plowing, pulling, and digging post holes.
The tractor motors allow regenerative braking to conserve battery power and eliminate wear on a braking system.
When driving the operator controls forward, reverse, right, & left, and stopping as well as ground speed with a joystick. Heavy equipment operators have loved this method for articulated control of heavy tasks for years. This type control is called “Drive by Wire”.
Most tractors manufactured today use hydrostatic type automatic transmissions. These are basically two metal plates spinning very close to each other in oil. This smooths out the torque delivery but nearly doubles the required horsepower to perform the same task as older tractors with gears. Electric tractors perform torque control inherently in their design. Using a standard geared transmission allow ranges of ground speed while maintaining torque control from zero to top speed.
The tractor is designed with three 3 point hitches with parallel operation. All the hitches are lifted and lowered using linear actuators capable of lifting 1500 lbs. There is no hydraulic fluid to leak on crops and the actuators are up to 20 times more efficient. The hitches can operate in float position to keep implements working at the most efficient depth. With the addition of a pin the actuators can be locked to lift the whole front or rear of the tractor off the ground for changing tires or tread width in 4” increments from 44 inches – 72 inches. The front and rear hitches are equipped with a latch that can load and unload implements while the operator stays in the seat.
Another design advantage to the electric tractor is weight distribution and a low center of gravity. The battery(s) are mounted low giving a safer center of gravity. Weight distribution can be arranged specifically for the task at hand, for example if a heavy implement is being used on the rear hitch then a battery pack can be quickly mounted on the front hitch or if a loader is on the front than the battery can be on the rear hitch. The mid hitch makes precision cultivation possible for organic farmers because the tool bar is visible right in front of them.
All 3 hitches can be used at the same time for light duty work like planting and harvesting. For example a compost spreader can be mounted on the front hitch, exchangeable battery pack on the mid hitch and seeder on the rear hitch or for harvesting a reaper can be quickly mounted on the front with a battery and conveyor on the mid hitch which deposits the crop in a dump bed on the rear hitch.
There endless possibilities for both pulled implements and powered implements with properly sized electric motors that just need to be plugged in to the battery. The dangerous PTO can be eliminated and efficiency and convenience can be dramatically increased.